the Japanese American Internment
December 7 Pearl Harbor
was attacked by the Japanese. Presidential Proclamation No. 2525
gives blanket authority to Attorney General for a sweep of suspects
December 8 Treasury
Department seizes all Japanese banks and business
December 9 Many Japanese
language schools closed.
December 11 FBI warns
against possession of cameras or guns by suspected "enemy"
December 27 Attorney
General orders all suspected "enemy "aliens in West to
surrender short wave radios and cameras
December 30 California
revokes liquor license held by non-citizen Japanese.
January 1 Attorney General
freezes travel by all suspected "enemy " aliens, orders
surrender of weapons.
January 14 President
Roosevelt orders re-registration of suspected "enemy"
aliens in West.
January 27 Los Angeles
City and County discharges all Japanese on civil service lists.
January 29 US Attorney
General Francis Biddle issued the first of a series of orders establishing
limited strategic areas along the Pacific Coast and requiring the
removal of all suspected "enemy" aliens from these areas.
January 31 Attorney
General establishes 59 additional prohibited zones in California
to be cleared by February 15.
February 4 Attorney
General establishes curfew zones in California to become effective
February 14 Lt. General
J. DeWitt, Commanding General of the Western Defense Command, sends
a memorandum to the Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson recommending
the removal of "Japanese and other subversive persons"
from the West Coast area.
February 19 President
Roosevelt signed Executive Order No. 9066, authorizing Secretary
of War, or any military commander designated by Secretary to establish
'military areas' and exclude therefrom 'any or all persons'.
February 20 Secretary
Stimson designated General DeWitt as military commander empowered
to carry out an evacuation within his command under the terms of
the Executive Order 9066.
March 2 General DeWitt
issues Proclamation No. I, designating the Western half of the three
Pacific Coast states and the southern third of Arizona as military
areas and stipulating that all persons of Japanese descent would
eventually be removed.
March 7 Army acquire
Owens Valley Site for Manzanar temporary detention center.
March 11 General DeWitt
establishes the Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA), with
Colonel Karl R. Bendetsen as Director to carry out the internment
March 16 Wartime Civil Control Administration establishes military
area in Idaho, Montana, Utah and Nevada, designate 934 prohibited
zone to be cleared.
March 18 President Roosevelt
signed Executive Order No. 9102 creating the War Relocation Authority
to assist person evacuated by the military under Executive Order
No. 9066. Milton S. Eisenhower was named Director.
March 20 WCCA acquires
Santa Anita as a temporary detention center.
March 21 President Roosevelt
signed Public Law 503 (77th Congress) making it a federal offense
to violate any order issued by a designated military commander under
authority of Executive Order No. 9066.
March 22 First large
contingent of Japanese and Japanese Americans moved from Los Angeles
to the Manzanar temporary detention center operated by the Army
in the Owens Valley of California.
March 23 General DeWitt
issues Civilian Exclusion Order No. 1 ordering the evacuation of
all people of Japanese descent from Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound
and their removal by March 30, to the Puyallup Army temporary detention
center near Seattle.
March 24 Curfew for
all aliens and Japanese proclaimed for military area 1 and other
strategic areas in west effective March 27. WCCA acquires sites
for temporary detention centers in California at Merced, Tulare,
Marysville, and Fresno.
March 27 General DeWitt
issued Proclamation No.4 (effective March 29) forbidding further
voluntary migration of Japanese and Japanese Americans from the
West Coast military areas.
April 3 First compulsory
incarceration of Los Angeles Japanese to Santa Anita temporary detention
April 28 Seattle internees
are sent to temporary detention center at Puyallup fairgrounds,
called "Camp Harmony. "
April 28 132 Alaska
internees are sent to Puyallup temporary detention center; later
to Minidoka Internment camp.
May 8 The first contingent
of internees arrives at the Colorado River Internment camp (Poston)
near Parker, Arizona.
May 19 Western Defense
Command issues Civilian Restriction Order No. 1 establishing all
temporary detention centers in the eight far western states as military
areas and forbidding residents to leave these areas without expressed
approval of the Western Defense Command.
May 27 The first contingent
of internees arrives at the Tule Lake Internment camp in Northern
California, this group included 447 volunteers who came from Puyallup
and Portland temporary detention centers.
June 1 The Manzanar
Army temporary detention center was transferred from WCCA to WRA
and converted to Manzanar Internment camp.
June 1-4 Internees arrive
directly from rural Oregon and Washington to the Tule Lake prison.
June 2 General DeWitt
issued Public Proclamation No.6 forbidding further voluntary migration
of people of Japanese descent from the eastern half of California
and simultaneously announce that all such people would eventually
be removed from this area directly to Internment camps.
June 17 President Roosevelt
appointed Dillon S. Myer to succeed Milton S. Eisenhower as Director
July 13 Mitsuye Endo
petitions for a writ of habeas corpus stating that she was loyal
and law abiding U. S. citizen, that no charge had been made against
her, that she was being unlawfully detained, and she was confined
in a internment camp under armed guard and held there against her
August 7 Western Defense
Commander announced the completion of removal of more than 120,000
Japanese Americans from their homes.
August 10 Minidoka Internment
camp near Twin Falls, Idaho receives the first contingent of internees
from the Puyallup Army temporary detention center.
August 12 Heart Mountain
Internment camp near Cody, Wyoming received its first group of internees
from the Pomona Army temporary detention center.
August 15 Farm labor
strike at Tule Lake Internment Camp.
August 27 The Granada
Internment camp near La Mar, Colorado was opened with the arrival
of a group from Merced temporary detention center.
September 11 The Central
Utah internment camp, near Delta, Utah received its first group
from Tanforan temporary detention center.
September 18 The Rohwer
internment camp near McGhee, Arkansas received its first group of
internees from the Stockton temporary detention center
October 6 The Jerome
internment camp near Dermont, Arkansas--the last of the 10 centers--received
a group of internees from the Fresno Temporary detention center.
November 3 The transfer
of internees from temporary detention centers was completed with
the arrival of the last group at Jerome internment camp from Fresno
temporary detention center.
January 4 WRA field
offices established in Chicago, Salt lake City, Cleveland, Minneapolis,
Des Moines, New York City, Denver, Kansas City. and Boston.
January 23 Secretary
of War Henry Stimson announced plans to form an all-Japanese American
Combat team to be made up of volunteers from both the mainland and
February 8 Registration
(loyalty questionnaire) of all persons over 17 years of age for
Army recruitment, segregation and relocation begins at most of the
May 6 Ms Eleanor Roosevelt
spent a day at the Gila River Internment camp.
June 21 Hirabayashi
v U.S. and Yasui v U.S : The Supreme Court rules that
a curfew may be imposed against one group of Americans citizens
based solely on ancestry and that Congress in enacting Public law
77-503 authorized the implementation of Executive Order 9066 and
provided criminal penalties for violation of orders of the Military
February 16 President
Roosevelt signed Executive Order No. 9423 transferring WRA to the
Department of the Interior.
May The all-Japanese
American 442 Regimental Combat Team (RCT) sent to the Italian front.
June 6 D-Day
June 30 Jerome Internment
camp closed. the remaining personnel transferred to Amache, Granada,
Colorado and Rohwer, Arkansas.
December 17 The War
Department announced the revocation (effective on January 2, 1945)
of the West Coast mass exclusion orders which had been in effect
against people of Japanese descent since the spring of 1942
December 18 The WRA
announced that all internment camps would be closed before the end
of 1945 and the entire WRA program would be liquidated on June 30,
December 18 Korematsu
v U.S.: the U.S. Supreme Court rules that one group of citizens
may be singled out and expelled from their homes and imprisoned
for several years without trial, based solely on their ancestry.
December 18 In ex
parte Endo, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that WRA has no authority
to detain a "concededly loyal" American citizen.
April 29 442--All Japanese
American Regiment frees prisoners at Dachau Concentration Camps.
August 15 V-J Day
September Western Defense
Command issues Public Proclamation No. 24 revoking all individual
exclusion orders and all further military restrictions against persons
of Japanese descent.
Oct 15- Dec 15 All WRA
Internment camps are closed except for Tule Lake Center
March 20 Tule Lake Segregation
June 30 War Relocation
Authority program officially terminates.
October 30 Crystal City
Detention Center, Texas operated by the Justice Department releases
last Japanese (North. Central and South ) Americans. The closing
of the Japanese American Internment Program.
July 2 Evacuation Claims
Act passed, giving internees until January 3.1950 to file claims
against the government for damages to or loss of real or personal
property consequence of the evacuation. Total of $31 million paid
by the government for property lost by internees-- equaling less
than 10 cents per dollar lost.
February 19 President
Gerald Ford formally rescinds Executive Order No. 9066.
June 23 Report of the
Commission of Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC),
entitled Personal Justice Denied, concludes that exclusion,
expulsion and incarceration were not justified by military necessity,
and the decisions to do so were based on race prejudice, war hysteria,
and a failure of political leadership.
October 4 In response
to a petition for a writ of error coram nobis by Fred Korematsu,
the Federal District Court of San Francisco reverses his 1942 conviction
and rules that the internment was not justified.
November 2 President
George Bush signed Public law 101-162 which guarantees fund for
reparation payments to the WW II internment survivors beginning
in October of 1990. For the Japanese American community. it marks
a victorious end to a long struggle for justice. For the nation,
the President signature reaffirms the country's commitment to equal
justice under the law.